Following its introduction on the island of Timor, the shrub Chromolaena odorata has expanded dramatically across the landscape. A highly flammable but fire tolerant plant species, Chromolaena is an extremely successful plant coloniser of disturbed ground and open savanna woodlands. For Timorese semisubsistence agriculturalists, Chromolaena odorata represents the most recent in a long history of invasive weed species that have periodically covered their lands and challenged their ability to farm and prosper. Already its impact is being felt in a number of domains of socioeconomic life. This paper explores some of these issues and the prospects for future management and control strategies.