Archaeological parenchyma is analysed using microCT to enable virtual histological examination and taxonomic identification to species level. MicroCT images are compared with reflected light microscopy (RLM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of fresh, desiccated and charred reference specimens. These results reveal differences in cell dimensions depending upon sample preparation and highlight the importance of using appropriately prepared reference material. A reference library is provided as supplemental material to address a lack of available imagery of reference specimens. MicroCT analysis confirms previous, more tentative, identifications of fragments of archaeological parenchyma from relatively recent archaeological con-texts at Kuk Swamp, highlands of Papua New Guinea. Five archaeobotanical fragments are described in detail and with varying levels of confidence to sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). The study demonstrates the potential of non-destructive microCT for the identification of archaeological parenchyma.