Between 1994/95 and 1997/98, Indonesia's spending on anti-poverty programs grew from 0.1% to 0.3% of GDP. The introduction of the 'social safety net' raised anti-poverty spending to 1.4% of GDP in 1998/99 and changed its main focus from job creation schemes, financed mainly by loans and grants to small firms and community groups, to in-kind subsidies for rice, public health care, scholarships for children in poor families and grants to schools in poor areas. The most accurately targeted program was health care, which covered twice as many people in the two poorest deciles as in the remaining eight. For most other programs, this targeting ratio was only about 1.5. We argue that the education and health care programs were the most successful, and doubt that the rice subsidy, job creation and loans schemes were worthwhile.