This chapter argues the significant issues affecting artisanal and small-scale mining in the Asia-Pacific Region are caused by the profit-driven nature of the industry, which encourages poor practices to lower operational costs. Three key issuesâ€”environmental damage, health and safety and securityâ€”seriously impact on the industry, and will not be resolved without better legalisation of the industry. Environmental damage caused by poor mining practices is a key concern, and is not only an environmental issue. It also has a significant impact on the health of miners and their local communities, which is further compounded by poor safety standards and a lack of knowledge and skills. The establishment of artisanal and small-scale mining camps also has lead to increased violence as a result of community breakdown, and security is further threatened by conflicting relationships with large-scale mining corporations and state governments. The hazardous nature of the industry limits its potential, and without the introduction of standardised regulations, it will continue to be affected negatively by these issues.