Craniometrics Reveal "Two Layers" of Prehistoric Human Dispersal in Eastern Eurasia

H Matsumura, Hsiao-chun Hung, Charles Higham, Chi Zhang, Mariko Yamagata, Lan Cuong Nguyen, Zhen Li, Xuechun Fan, Truman Simanjuntak, Adhi Agus Oktaviana, Jia-ning He

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


    This cranio-morphometric study emphasizes a "two-layer model" for eastern Eurasian anatomically modern human (AMH) populations, based on large datasets of 89 population samples including findings directly from ancient archaeological contexts. Results suggest that an initial "first layer" of AMH had related closely to ancestral Andaman, Australian, Papuan, and Jomon groups who likely entered this region via the Southeast Asian landmass, prior to 65-50 kya. A later "second layer" shared strong cranial affinities with Siberians, implying a Northeast Asian source, evidenced by 9 kya in central China and then followed by expansions of descendant groups into Southeast Asia after 4 kya. These two populations shared limited initial exchange, and the second layer grew at a faster rate and in greater numbers, linked with contexts of farming that may have supported increased population densities. Clear dichotomization between the two layers implies a temporally deep divergence of distinct migration routes for AMH through both southern and northern Eurasia.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalScientific Reports
    Issue number0
    Publication statusPublished - 2019


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