Information and communications technologies (ICT) have created untold benefits for life in industrialized societies, offering efficiencies in the delivery of education, health services, recreation, commerce and government. ICT has changed considerably the nature of modern workplaces and patterns of employment, and offered opportunities for people across the globe to stay in touch and to establish new personal and business relationship. ICT has also created unprecedented opportunities for crime in both Western and Eastern regions of the world. In the words of Grabosky & Smith: "since Wheatstone and Cooke first patented their system of communication by the means of electromagnetic impulses carried over wires in 1837, crimes have been committed either through the misuse of telecommunications equipment, or against telecommunications equipment. Every technological development has provided a new opportunity for criminality which has often been exploited". Identifying these changing vulnerabilities, and mobilizing appropriate countermeasures, are some of the great challenges of today, and of the years to come. Much technology-related crime lies beyond the capacity of contemporary law enforcement and regulatory agencies to control, if they act by themselves. Therefore, security in cyberspace will depend on the collaborative efforts of many institutions, coupled with self-help by potential victims. In cyberspace, the adage "prevention is better than cure" should be of paramount importance. The ideal configuration of responses will differ, depending upon the activity, but is likely to entail a mix of law enforcement, technological and market responses. Because cyberspace knows no boundaries and computer crime often crosses national frontiers, effective countermeasures will require a substantial degree of international co-operation.
|Title of host publication||Crime and Justice: A Guide to Criminology (5th edition)|
|Editors||Darren Palmer, Willem de Lint, Derek Dalton|
|Place of Publication||Pyrmont, Sydney, NSW|
|Publisher||Thomson Reuters (Professional) Australia Limited|
|Publication status||Published - 2017|