A dictionary definition of the term illegal tells us that it means something â€œnot allowed by the lawâ€.1 According to particular country, group or area of activityâ€. To further clarify the meaning of illegal, it is also useful to consider its synonyms, which include â€œcriminalâ€, â€œillegitimateâ€ and â€œirregularâ€.2 The term â€œcriminal actâ€ is often used interchangeably with the term â€œillegal actâ€. However, the former has a more markedly negative connotation, as it refers to an act that is sanctioned under criminal law. Furthermore, a crime may be carried out by someone whose activities are normally legal, such as a logging company, or by a criminal organization whose main goal is to carry out criminal acts, as discussed in Chapter 5. The term â€œirregularâ€, on the other hand, refers to â€œa behaviour or action not according to usual rules or what is expectedâ€1 . It may refer, for instance, to an action that deviates from a certain procedure specified in a voluntary code of conduct that does not have the status of law. Though not a synonym, the term â€œinformalâ€ has also become quite prominent in recent discussions about illegality in the forest sector. It deserves some qualification to avoid conflation with the term â€œillegalâ€ and it will be considered in the following section.
|Title of host publication||Illegal Logging and Related Timber Trade â€“ Dimensions, Drivers, Impacts and Responses|
|Editors||Daniela Kleinschmit, Stephanie Mansourian, Christoph Wildburger, Andre Purret|
|Place of Publication||Vienna|
|Publisher||International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO)|
|Publication status||Published - 2016|