Specification of "standing" - whose benefits and costs should be counted - is a crucial step in a Cost-Benefit Analysis. If it is omitted, some relevant costs and benefits may be excluded, or, conversely, wrongly included. The textbook formulation for standing is "the whole of society" for a country, but the literature is virtually silent on the issue at a sub-national or regional level. A strictly state or regional standing can be a problem within federated countries such as Australia or the USA due to conceptual inconsistencies and resulting inefficiencies. On balance, a national perspective is to be preferred, at least as a default option.