There are large gaps in child education outcomes between the Kinh majority and non-Kinh minorities in Vietnam. This paper seeks to understand the reasons for these ethnic gaps. The examination employs Probit and multilevel regression models, and associated decomposition techniques. The results show that Vietnamâ€™s ethnic gap in school enrolment is mostly attributable to household characteristics such as household expenditure and fatherâ€™s education. Gaps in schooling progress and performance are explained by a broader set of variables such as child, household, commune, school, and peer characteristics.