Since December 2018 there has been a new government and a new energy policy in Mexico. This government, under President Andrés Manuel López Obrador, has called for the fourth transformation of the country, or 4T, which includes implementing profound changes in energy policy focused on a strong oil sector headed by Mexico's state oil company PEMEX. Some of the key elements of the new policy are the construction of the Dos Bocas refinery with public investment, a rescue plan for the highly indebted PEMEX, non-private development of unconventional resources (i.e. shale gas and oil), and combatting the illegal extraction of hydrocarbons. These changes are being driven by government policies to support the uptake of hydrocarbons production to achieve 'energy sovereignty', making Mexico self-sufficient in energy in the medium term.