The involvement of family members in nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) has been largely overlooked in the literature on the nonprofit and voluntary sector. This study draws on the family business literature to explore the main features of family involvement and the implications for organizational survival and effectiveness. It shows that the family is an important research variable. Exploring the NGO sector in India, the article demonstrates that family involvement can significantly influence the management of human and material resources, governance, and decision making. Although there are several advantages to family involvement, a large overlap of family and organization can threaten credibility and legitimacy. Family-based NGOs must stress their value orientation to counter negative perceptions.