Clark (1940), in his important book The Conditions of Economic Progress, charted the evolution of economic structures over the process of development. Reflecting his long-run emphasis, in this 25th Memorial Lecture I begin with an overview of the evolution of the relative bargaining power between men and women. Then I then consider one aspect of the position of women in Australian labour marketsâ€”â€˜glass ceilingsâ€™, which illustrate the pay gaps between otherwise identical women and men. Next I outline my experiments with coauthors that shed new light on the impact of nature and nurture on behavioural outcomes, and that reveal the importance of one particular aspect of culture. I conclude by drawing inferences about the potential for public policy intervention to improve the position of women.