Standard reduced-form models are estimated for Canada to examine the relationships between real per capita gross domestic product and four measures of environmental degradation. Of the four chosen measures of environmental degradation, only concentrations of carbon monoxide appear to decline in the long run with increases in real per capita income. The data are also tested for the presence of unit roots and for the existence of cointegration between each of the measures of environmental degradation and per capita income. ADF and Phillips-Perron tests indicate unit roots in the logs of the measures of all variables. The Engle-Granger test and Johansen's maximum eigenvalue test suggest that a long-term relationship between per capita income and the measures of environmental degradation does not exist. Causality tests also indicate bidirectional causality, not unidirectional causality, from income to the environment. The results suggest that Canada does not have the luxury of being able to grow out of its environmental problems. The implication is that to prevent further environmental degradation, Canada requires concerted policies and incentives to reduce pollution intensity per unit of output across sectors, to shift from more to less pollution-producing outputs and to lower the environmental damage associated with aggregate consumption.
|Journal||Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics|
|Publication status||Published - 2003|