High-resolution lidar analysis of the Fisi Tea defensive earthwork at Lapaha, Kingdom of Tonga

Phillip Parton, Geoffrey Clark, Christian Reepmeyer

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


    In many prehistoric societies, earthwork defences were among the costliest and largest built structures and required a significant investment in resources, particularly labour, land and materials. Consequently, the construction of major defences was not undertaken lightly and they were frequently built in response to an imminent threat of intense violence (Keeley 1996). Earthwork defences often enclosed residential communities and elite centres, whereas others were larger and included hinterlands and appear to have defended a regional area (Connah 2000; Fox 1976; Scherer and Golden 2006; Webster et al. 2007). In both cases, defences protected the areas most important to the community and represent emic statements of group territory (Webster et al. 2008:349).
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationArchaeological Perspectives on Conflict and Warfare in Australia and the Pacific
    Editors Geoffrey Clark and Mirani Litster
    Place of PublicationCanberra
    PublisherANU Press
    ISBN (Print)9781760464899
    Publication statusPublished - 2022


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