|Title of host publication||The Oxford Handbook on the United Nations|
|Editors||Thomas G. Weiss and Sam Daws|
|Place of Publication||Oxford, UK|
|Publisher||Oxford University Press|
|Publication status||Published - 2018|
Cross-border military intervention is a recurring feature throughout history. Often, geopolitical and commercial calculations were cloaked in the language of â€˜humanitarian intervention.â€™ After decolonization, developing countries embedded non-intervention as a peremptory norm. Many tyrants then used sovereignty as a shield behind which to commit atrocities with impunity. When the North Atlantic Treaty Organization intervened to protect victims of Serbian atrocities in Kosovo, the Non-Aligned Movement denounced any right of humanitarian intervention. To reconcile the two competing imperatives, the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty proposed the principle of the â€˜responsibility to protectâ€™ to permit UN-authorized protective interventions while consolidating a rules-based order. Although much improved, however, dilemmas remain about when and by whom force can be used inside borders to guarantee human protection.