Indonesia in 2021: A year of crisis, development, and democratic decline

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


    A devastating wave of COVID-19 infections cast a long shadow over all political and economic developments in Indonesia in 2021. Many of the patterns and trends identified in this journal's previous year-end analysis intensified in 2021, with a deepening of pandemic-induced crises, immense loss of life, and further erosion of democratic norms and institutions, including unprecedented intervention into a corruption watchdog and a major business association. The administration of president Joko Widodo has focused almost exclusively on economic development and business investment throughout the pandemic; but the spread of the Delta strain forced a shift in the government's approach to lockdowns, prompting new concerns about rising poverty and inequality.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)93-104
    JournalAsian Survey
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 2022


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