International cooperation on the North Korean refugee crisis

Markus Bell, Geoffrey Fattig

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


    Push factors, such as widespread human rights violations, hunger, economic problems, environmental disasters and war, are reinforced by strong pull factors such as seemingly better living conditions in other countries. Over 70% of those leaving North Korea are women - mainly due to the greater space for activities outside the home of women in North Korea - many of whom suffer sexual abuse, including falling victim to human trafficking at the hands of migration brokers who operate outside the law.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalForced Migration Review
    Publication statusPublished - 2014


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