Exactly 20 years after the first undersea cable was laid across the English Channel in 1851, the last leg of the north- and south- bound cable networks reached Japan via Shanghai, connecting all the continents, except for the Antarctic. This age of global telecommunications coincided with two moves by the major empires in the late nineteenth century: their aggressive colonization in Africa, Asia and the Pacific; and the expansion of the franchise at their metropolitan centres. Overseas news was conveyed more quickly, and affected more peopleï¿½s views of the world. As metropolitan states gradually expanded their franchise bases, these peoplesï¿½ views (the public opinion) were becoming an important factor not only in domestic politics, but also in foreign policies. The states had to respond to these developments of technology and mass-based politics, realize the power of news, and come to see the need to develop policy and institutions to utilize news in foreign policy. As soon as global telecommunication networks were established, three major news agencies ï¿½ British Reuters, French Havas, and German Wolff ï¿½ created an inter-imperial news cartel system in 1870, and Northeast Asia came under Reutersï¿½ news empire. Using the notion of ï¿½news propagandaï¿½, this book analyses how the Meiji state came into the inter-imperial news system, and how it became aware of the problem of Reutersï¿½ news empire in Northeast Asia. It also examines how the Japanese state began to develop the governmental institutions and a key operational agency, the national news agency, to utilize news propaganda in international politics, and how it challenged Reutersï¿½ news agency in the region with a help of American Associated Press. The book demonstrates the modern thinking of foreign policy elites, including high- to ï¿½ middle-ranking diplomats, military officers and news agency men. They were well attuned with global trends, technological development, and the rising significance of ï¿½international public opinionï¿½. They responded not with isolationism from, but with greater engagement with the world public in the time of diplomatic crises and international conflicts. Their challenge to Reutersï¿½ news empire was not a structural challenge to the inter-imperial news system, but a quest for Japanï¿½s greater power in that system, and closely connected to the military expansion into China.
|Place of Publication||Dordrecht The Netherlands/St.Louis, MO USA|
|Publisher||Republic of Letters Publishing BV|
|Number of pages||343|
|Publication status||Published - 2012|