Purpose: This paper analyses how the history of the Mongol invasions of Japan in the 13th century was used to create a collective national memory of modern Japan and how individuals and the Japanese public promoted these memories through a campaign of constructing memorials to strengthen Japan's unified national consciousness in times of national crisis. Design/methodology/approach: The main research material is derived from Japanese newspaper archives, National Diet library database as well as Japanese and English secondary literature. Findings: This paper argues that three Japanese concepts, such as kokunan (national crisis), kokui (national prestige or pride) and gokoku (protecting the country), were essential for the creation of collective Japanese memory and identity. Originality/value: The paper outlines the narrative formed around the history of the Mongol invasions of Japan to create a unified national identity through a collective historical memory in times of Japanese "national crisis" felt in its external relations.
|Journal||Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development|
|Publication status||Published - 2021|