Paleontology is the study of past life. The geological record preserves the history of individual organisms, populations, communities, ecosystems and earth systems through millions of years. It is a unique resource for understanding the dynamics that have shaped our current biota, and developing evidence-based models that will allow us to predict how organisms will respond to future changes to habitat, climate and the anthropogenic manipulation of communities and ecosystems. This book provides examples of the use of paleontological data in ecology and conservation science and illustrates how the addition of data from the fossil record can lead to novel insights and developments. It examines possible future directions in paleoecology and conservation paleobiology.