Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine the key causes of and solutions to corruption in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and suggest ways for improving anti-corruption efforts. Design/methodology/approach - This paper comprises a desk-based review of academic literature, policy documents and media. Findings - Fighting corruption in PNG requires an understanding of and response to local political, historic, cultural and economic issues. In particular, anti-corruption actors need to pay attention to: first, the opportunities and threats associated with state politics; second, the structural conditions that cause citizens to support corruption; third, the role of non-state actors in causing corruption; and fourth, ensuring stronger legal responses to corruption that result in prosecutions. Originality/value - This paper highlights key issues which anti-corruption organisations in PNG should address, examines state and non-state causes of corruption, and provides an updated analysis of key drives and solutions to corruption in PNG.