Soldiers, Parties and Bureaucrats: illicit fund-raising in contemporary Indonesia

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


    This article discusses illicit fund-raising efforts in Indonesia's armed forces, political parties and bureaucracy after the fall of Suharto in 1998. It argues that while personal self-enrichment remains a key motivation for military leaders, party politicians and bureaucrats to collect off-budget funds, there are also other crucial factors. Most importantly, all three sectors aim to control independent funds in order to maintain or strengthen their autonomy from other state institutions, such as parliamentary budget commissions, executive monitoring bodies or official auditing boards. By engaging in extensive self-financing practices, however, the three political actors undermine their own professionalism, functional effectiveness and internal coherence, and obstruct Indonesia's process of democratic consolidation.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)225-254
    JournalSouth East Asia Research
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - 2008


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