The evaluation of environmental, social and economic tradeoffs requires a combined view of how the various ecosystem or landscape function approaches are linked. An emerging need for scientific development, as well as fostering of applications and environmental management based on of the ecosystem service concept has been identified. The human population of earth is likely to increase to 9 billion people by the end of the century, the global climate is being transformed, biodiversity loss continues, and conventional, fossil-based economies are no longer a viable option. Accounting looks at the flow of processes or materials and is relatively objective, while assessment evaluates a system or process with a goal in mind and is more normative. Both are integrating frameworks that have distinctive roles. Both ecosystem service accounting and assessment need to be established and pursued in a broader socio-ecological context.