State violence, human-rights violations and the case of apwint in Myanmar

Lynette Chua, David Gilbert

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


    This chapter examines the intersection of state and violence against apwint in Myanmar. It addresses the human-rights violations against apwint. The chapter explores the everyday violence suffered by gender non-conforming apwint, biologically male persons who identify and appear as feminine, in Myanmar. It highlights the larger, endemic problem of arbitrary rule and corruption that permeates all levels of government in Myanmar, a problem that remains unresolved despite the recent transition from military rule to limited civilian governance. The status of apwint is further diminished by dominant religious beliefs, including those of the majority religion of Buddhism. In 1948, when the Union of Burma gained independence, it inherited the colonial legislation that continues to affect apwint today. The earlier one involves a network of international non-governmental organisations (INGOs), Burmese non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and grassroots-level community-based organisations (CBOs) and self-help groups (SHGs) that work on HIV/AIDS.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationGender, violence and the state of Asia
    Editors Amy Barrow and Joy L. Chia
    Place of PublicationOxon
    PublisherRoutledge, London
    ISBN (Print)9781138101722
    Publication statusPublished - 2016


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