This chapter examines the intersection of state and violence against apwint in Myanmar. It addresses the human-rights violations against apwint. The chapter explores the everyday violence suffered by gender non-conforming apwint, biologically male persons who identify and appear as feminine, in Myanmar. It highlights the larger, endemic problem of arbitrary rule and corruption that permeates all levels of government in Myanmar, a problem that remains unresolved despite the recent transition from military rule to limited civilian governance. The status of apwint is further diminished by dominant religious beliefs, including those of the majority religion of Buddhism. In 1948, when the Union of Burma gained independence, it inherited the colonial legislation that continues to affect apwint today. The earlier one involves a network of international non-governmental organisations (INGOs), Burmese non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and grassroots-level community-based organisations (CBOs) and self-help groups (SHGs) that work on HIV/AIDS.
|Title of host publication||Gender, violence and the state of Asia|
|Editors||Amy Barrow and Joy L. Chia|
|Place of Publication||Oxon|
|Publication status||Published - 2016|