When agricultural commodities in developing countries experience an economic boom, they offer potential pathways out of poverty while creating environmental and social problems. While recent research provides insights into the governance of international supply chains, it provides less analysis of the local production networks creating critical problems. Indonesia is now the world's largest exporter of crude palm oil. This paper analyses processes of oil palm development in three oil palm districts. It considers how policy models, regime interests, and agribusiness strategies shape local production networks, generate local outcomes, and affect the possibilities of tackling issues associated with this boom.