The Challenges of Green-on-Blue Investigations in Afghanistan

Clive Williams

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


    In this chapter, the "green" refers to the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF), mainly the Afghan National Army (ANA) and Afghan National Police (ANP), while "blue" refers to International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) uniformed personnel and contract staff. According to The Long War Journal , during the period 1 January 2008 to 30 November 2012, at least 123 ISAF personnel were killed in green-on-blue attacks. A typical green-on-blue attack involves a lone male Afghan in military or police uniform opening fire on unsuspecting ISAF personnel at a base area or checkpoint. Such attacks have occurred mainly in the south and north east of Afghanistan. Following the first Australian green-on-blue incident the process followed by Australia was to establish an Australian Defence Force Investigative Service (ADFIS) investigation immediately after the incident, followed by a broader ranging Inquiry. The ADF Inquiry reports on the first three green-on-blue incidents have been publicly released. Keywords: ADFIS investigation; Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF); Afghanistan; Australian Defence Force (ADF); green-on-blue attack; International Security Assistance Force (ISAF)
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationInvestigating Operational Incidents in a Military Context: Law, Justice, Politics
    Editors David W Lovell
    Place of PublicationLeiden, The Netherlands
    PublisherKoninklijke Brill
    ISBN (Print)9789004277090
    Publication statusPublished - 2014


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