We compare high-resolution pollen and chironomid records from the last 15,000 yr in Laguna Facil, southern Chile. Major vegetation and chironomid changes are recorded between ca 14,900 and 14,700 cal. yr BP. During the Lateglacial, changes in the chironomid stratigraphy lag behind changes in the pollen stratigraphy suggesting that the chironomids are responding to changes in the tree canopy or in soil chemistry brought about by vegetational development. At about 7200 cal. yr BP there is a change in the chironomid stratigraphy in advance of changes in the vegetation. This suggests that the response is to regional climatic change. The relatively close correlation of the chironomid and pollen stratigraphies with changes in charcoal concentrations also implicates the importance of fire and/or vulcanism in influencing the dynamics of forest and limnological systems. There is no clear evidence of cooling during the Younger Dryas chronozone in Laguna Facil.