This chapter presents estimates of likely glaciation extents across equatorial southeast Asia based on the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model and also discusses new evidence for multiple glaciations. Mt. Kinabalu in Malaysia has an area of 19.3 km2 higher than 3000 m above sea level (asl) but maximum glacier extent is closer to 5.5 km2. At least 3000 km2 of Papua, Indonesia, and 400 km2 of Papua New Guinea (PNG) rise above 3600 m asl. These areas represent rough glaciation extents because the late Pleistocene glacial snowline was broadly at 3600 m asl.On Mt Giluwe, PNG, small frontal moraines overlie large down-valley lateral moraines indicating a recent advance of relatively thick ice over an older glacial landscape. The small moraines appear to date to Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 4 and 2. The large downvalley moraines on Mt. Giluwe are old with boulder exposure ages that date to MIS 6-7. North of Mount Trikora, Papua, cross-cutting moraines suggest at least two major glacial advances. Five boulders spread across an up-valley moraine have cosmogenic exposure ages that postdate the last glaciation. Boulders on downvalley moraines exhibit a range of older exposure ages, four dating to the last glaciations.
|Developments in Quaternary Science
|Published - 2011