The NPT holdouts: Universality as an Elusive Goal

Natasha Barnes, Tanya Ogilvie-White, Rodrigo Alvarez Valdes

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


    This article assesses the impact of the U.S.-led disarmament agenda on the disarmament diplomacy and policies of the three nuclear-capable states not party to the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT)-India, Israel, and Pakistan. These states, often referred to as "NPT holdouts," undermine the application of the NPT obligations on all parties. Universality of the treaty framework has long been considered vital to strengthen the nuclear nonproliferation regime and consolidate non-nuclear norms. But can new U.S.-led disarmament momentum create the necessary dynamics to encourage the holdouts to disarm, or is this wishful thinking? This article argues that sustained disarmament momentum from the Western NWS will not be enough-a more comprehensive approach to disarmament is needed, including a genuine commitment by all NWS to engage in transparency and reductions, and full nuclear compliance and cooperation by Iran.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)95-113
    JournalNonproliferation Review
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 2010


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