â€˜1898â€™ marks the birth of both the American empire and the Filipino nation when the U.S. Navy joined forces with Filipino revolutionists in ending Spainâ€™s rule. The alliance ended when the Americans refused to recognise the Filipino republic and forcibly occupied the islands. Hopkins situates both the â€˜coming of ageâ€™ of America and the rise of a Filipino nationalist elite against a wider backdrop of imperial rivalries, economic transformations, and stages of globalisation in which the British Empire looms large. The essay builds on Hopkinsâ€™s account of Spanish rule leading to the Revolution. In contrast to Cuba, the Philippine interior was left relatively untouched, controlled mainly through the friar-curates who lorded it over the town centres but not their peripheries. Following upon Hopkinsâ€™s discussion of the three foundational nationalistsâ€“Jose Rizal, Andres Bonifacio, and Emilio Aguinaldoâ€“their differences can be explained by the peculiarities of the Spanish colonial system and how each of them related to their society.