The paper argues that China is building its capacity to grant, use and enforce patents. The same is true of Brazil and India. China has the greatest potential of scale of any developing country to use the patent system as a wealth-maximizing tool. The paper considers three questions. Can China make the patent system work for it? If so, how will the US respond? What should the weaker members of the G-77 do in light of the fact that the leaders of the G-77 are no longer interested in dealing with the structural disadvantages that the patent system perpetuates?