If South Asia is to survive and prosper in the ‘new normal’ global economic environment, its behind-the-border domestic reforms will be even more important than before. But these reforms are much more difficult and complex than initial market opening (Soesastro 2010). So it is timely to ask what lessons can be learned about how to ‘get the job done’. The focus of this book is on the processes and institutional arrangements that will help. In other words, it is about policy efficiency, a concept that is given a formal definition shortly.