Training and visit (T&V) extension vs. farmer field school: the Indonesian experience

Budy Resosudarmo, Satoshi Yamazaki

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


    For several decades the effective and efficient dissemination of new agricultural knowledge among farmers in developing countries has been problematic. Two major programs were implemented in Indonesia, namely The Training and Visit (T&V) Extension Program or The Massive Guidance (BIMAS) Program, from the mid 1960s until the end of the1980s, and the Farmer Field School (FFS) Program, during the 1990s. The main difference between these two programs is that, while farmers were instructed what to do under the T&V program, the FFS program encouraged and stimulated farmers to make their own decisions. This paper aims to discuss and compare the effectiveness of these two programs with reference to rice production in Indonesia. The findings suggest that, for regions where the level of development is still very low, implementing a T&V program instructing farmers what to do is probably more appropriate than an FFS. As for regions where agriculture is relatively developed, an effective FFS program seems more appropriate.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationEconomic Transition and Natural Resource Management in East and Southeast Asia
    Editors Volker Beckmann, Nguyen Huu Dung, Xiaoping Shi, Max Spoor, Justus Wesseler
    Place of PublicationAachen
    PublisherShaker Verlag
    ISBN (Print)9783832281076
    Publication statusPublished - 2010


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