Triangular treaties: The extent and limits of investment treaty rights

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


    Investment treaties should be reconceptualized as triangular treaties, i.e., agreements between sovereign states that create enforceable rights for investors as non-sovereign, third-party beneficiaries. State A (the host state) agrees to provide certain protections to investors coming from State B (the home state) and vice versa. If the investor considers that these protections have been violated, investment treaties also grant the investor permission to bring an arbitral claim directly against the host state. As a result, the agreement is entered into by the home and host state (collectively, the treaty parties) but the protections are created for the benefit of, and are typically enforced by, an investor from one state against the other state.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)353-417
    JournalHarvard International Law Journal
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - 2015


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