Ushering in the next phase of agriculture in India requires a deeper understanding of the growth process across regions and socio-economic contexts with an emphasis on strengthening the role of women. This paper argues that it is critical to capture socio-cultural diversity across various agro-climatic zones to arrive at a more detailed understanding of womenâ€™s labour contributions within the changing landscape of food security. The paper is based on an extensive survey carried out in the states of Gujarat and West Bengal. The analysis shows the immense contribution of women in the agricultural sector. Womenâ€™s contribution in farms is higher in West Bengal than Gujarat, but in Gujarat their contribution in the allied sector is significant. Womenâ€™s work in farms and their involvement in decision-making are the important determining factors for maintaining household food security. Thus, womenâ€™s roles in the farm need to be strengthened for the next phase of agriculture.